One of the most impressive professionals who I was fortunate to learn from was Ellyn Ogden, worldwide polio eradication coordinator at the U.S. Agency for International Development. She was exposed to an intensive red teaming effort, which I detail in my book, by way of the University of Foreign and Military Cultural Studies (i.e. “Red Team University”) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. She summarized her impressions of red teaming to me as: “It definitely changed me. It helped me envision failures, and made me more confident and bold to raise matters with seniors…there’s this internal pressure on myself to speak when nobody else will.” That is a consistent characterization of the under-appreciated impact of red teaming: it changes, even temporarily, an individual’s meta-cognition (how they think about thinking) and awakens their obligation to question and challenge conventional wisdom.