The issue that is raised here is how to compose the contradictory yearnings for localization, with the emergence of global trans-national structures, practices and mentalities that are occurring at the same time. At the P2P Foundation, we believe there is a logic which ‘transcends and includes’ the advantages and necessities of both localization and trans-nationalization: what we call Cosmo-Localization as a organizational principle for the organization of society at all levels (what’s light is shared globally, what’s heavy is organized and produced locally). Applied to industrial and material production, our friends at the P2P Lab call this methodology: DGML (‘Design Global, Manufacture Local’) and a prime expression of this are the plans of the Fab City coalition (of which we are now a part as well), which works around the Barcelona Pledge, to re-localize the production of products, services and food by a factor of 50% by 2054, and which now coalesces 16 cities. One of the main expressions. and drivers of such trans-nationalization may well be international coalitions of cities such as this one. The Spanish municipal coalitions do in fact have a internationalist agenda as much as a local one, and are striving for a alliance of Rebel Cities. In the last few weeks, thinking through the tension between localization and trans-nationalization, I have come up with the concept of ‘the subsidiarity of material production’, which marries both imperatives, and can be clearly distinguished from both nation-state protectionism, neoliberal globalization, but also simple reactive localism.